Travel Abroad

Ayala Law Obtains Visas for Plaintiff in Mass Tort Litigation

By | Admission, B1 Visa, Blog, immigration, Immigration Law, Litigation, News & Announcements, Travel Abroad, Visa | No Comments


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In what was an uphill process, Ayala Law obtained special visas for over 33-plaintiffs and witnesses to travel for litigation in the United States. The Plaintiffs-Applicants are Peruvian citizens from a remote, poor area of the city of La Oroya, Peru.

The plaintiff are part of a case filed in federal court in Missouri where they are seeking recovery from several corporate and individual US Defendants for injuries, damages and losses caused by exposures to lead and other toxic substances as a result of Defendants use, management, supervision, and release of materials from a metallurgical complex in the region of La Oroya, Peru.

The Plaintiffs were minors at the time of their initial exposure and injuries. At critical times during gestation and their developmental years, Plaintiffs were exposed to damaging levels of lead and other toxic substances including arsenic, cadmium, and sulfur dioxide. Attorney Eduardo Ayala has been involved in this case since early 2013.

The visas were crucial to allow the plaintiffs to appear at their deposition in Saint Louis Missouri. Had they not been able to appear to their deposition in the United States they could have faced adverse rulings in the case or even dismissal.

For information about visas call 305-570-2208 or email

Can you Travel to the United States on a Visitor Visa to Litigate?

By | Admission, B1 Visa, Blog, immigration, Immigration Law, Litigation, News & Announcements, Travel Abroad, Visa | No Comments

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The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) establishes that everyone is presumed to be an immigrant except, among others, certain categories of aliens visiting for business or for pleasure. Section 101(a)(15)(B) of the INA states that “ . . . an alien . . . having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning and who is visiting the United States temporarily for business or temporarily for pleasure . . .” is not an immigrant. See 8 U.S.C. 101(a)(15)(B) [1101(a)(15)(B)] (2017).

Similarly the Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) states that “[n]on-immigrant visas are for international travelers coming to the United States temporarily. . . for a wide variety of reasons, including tourism, business, medical treatment and certain types of temporary work.” 9 FAM 401.1-2 (2015).

The “[f]actors to be used in determining entitlement to Temporary Visitor Classification are . . .

(a) Have a residence in a foreign country, which [the applicant] do not intend to abandon;

(b) Intend to enter the United States for a period of specifically limited [temporary] duration; and

(c) Seek admission for the sole purpose of engaging in legitimate activities relating to business or pleasure. . .” 9 FAM 402.2-2(B)(U) a-b (2015).


The term “residence” is defined in INA 101(a)(33) as the place of general abode; the place of general abode of a person means his principal, actual dwelling place in fact, without regard to intent.” 9 FAM 402.2-2(C)(U) (2015).

Temporary Period of Stay:

The FAM states that “[a]lthough “temporary” is not specifically defined by either statute or regulation, it generally signifies a limited period of stay. The fact that the period of stay in a given case may exceed six months or a year is not in itself controlling, provided that . . .[the reviewer is] . . . satisfied that the intended stay actually has a time limitation and is not indefinite in nature.” Additionally, “[t]he period of time projected for the visit must be consistent with the stated purpose of the trip. The applicant must establish with reasonable certainty that departure from the United States will take place upon completion of the temporary visit. 9 FAM 402.2-2(D) (U) a-b (2015) (emphasis added).

Legitimate Activities Related to Business:

“Engaging in business contemplated for B1 Visa classification generally entails business activities other than the performance of skilled or unskilled labor.” 9 FAM 402.2-5(A) (U) a (2015) The applicant must show that she possesses adequate funds to avoid having to obtain unlawful employment.” See 9 FAM 41.31 N4.2 (2005).

Among the permitted business activities applicants may travel on a B1 Visa if they have litigation in the United States. See 9 FAM 402.2-5(B) (U) (4) (“Aliens should be classified B1 visitors for business, if otherwise eligible, if they are traveling to the United States to: . . . Litigate . . .”)

Litigation can include attending depositions, testifying at a trial, meeting with your attorneys or other reasons related to a case of which you are part in the United States.

For more information about traveling to the US to litigate or for business call or text at 305-570-2208 or email us at

Residentes Permanentes, Record Criminal y Viajes al Extranjero

By | Admissibility, Admission, CBP, Deportation, Lawful permanent resident, Noticias, NTA, Removal, Travel Abroad | No Comments

No es poco común recibir una llamada de un residente permanente (LPR por sus siglas en ingles) que viaja al extranjero por vacaciones o negocios y que, para sorpresa suya, se encuentra detenido por la Agencia de Aduanas y Protección Fronteriza (CBP por sus siglas en ingles).

Cuando CBP detiene a un residente permanente, en lugar de admitirlo y dejarlo entrar al país, por lo general es porque CBP tiene duda con respecto a la “admisibilidad” de ese LPR. Las dudas sobre la admisibilidad del LPR son generalmente provocadas por alguna violación criminal del LPR–no importa cuan lejos en el pasado.

Cada vez que un LPR entra y sale del país, el LPR está pidiendo ser admitido bajo la Sección 212 del código de Inmigración y Nacionalidad (INA por sus siglas en ingles). Si usted cometió un delito que podría hacer que usted sea inadmisible, y CBP se da cuenta (puede ser que no se hayan dado cuenta las últimas veces que viajó al extranjero y de pronto ahora se dan cuenta), entonces le podrían negar la entrada a los Estados Unidos.

Normalmente CBP frente a esta situación va a hacer una de dos cosas: (1) si no están seguros de que su incidente criminal lo hace inadmisible, le dirán que regrese y le darán el formulario I-546, que es una cita para aparecer de nuevo en una oficina de CBP con copias certificadas de sus records criminales. (2) Si CBP piensa de manera concluyente que usted es inadmisible (o deportable), entonces CBP le dará un documento llamado “Notice to Appear” (Formulario I-862). En ese documento se le ordenará que vaya delante de un juez de inmigración para que el decida si debe ser admitido o deportado de los Estados Unidos. A este punto, usted está en lo que se denomina técnicamente “Removal Proceedings” (o procedimiento para removerlo del país). El gobierno está tratando de deportarlo.

Si están frente a uno de estos escenarios, es extremadamente importante que se comunique con un abogado de inmigración para una evaluación de sus antecedentes penales. Un abogado de inmigración puede decirle cuáles son las opciones que tiene. Incluso si es deportable, podría calificar para ciertos remedios legales dependiendo de las circunstancias. Si todavía no se encuentran en esta situación, pero tienen antecedentes penales (no importa qué tan lejos en el pasado) y un planea viajar al extranjero, también es importante que llame a un abogado para que pueda evaluar si va podría tener problemas al regresar a los Estados Unidos. Sentencias penales para un LPR (asi sea un dia de pobratoria) son una bomba de tiempo que potencialmente podría meterlo en grandes problemas al regresar a los Estados Unidos.

Si tiene preguntas sobre este llámenos al 305-699-7848 para una evaluación telefónica gratuita de su caso.

Lawful Permanent Residents, Criminal Convictions, and Travel

By | Admissibility, Admission, Blog, Deportation, DHS, Green Card, ICE, Immigration Law, Lawful permanent resident, LPR, NTA, Removal, Travel Abroad | No Comments

It is not uncommon that I receive a call from a long time Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) who travels abroad for vacation or business who, to his/her surprise, is detained by Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

When CBP detains an LPR, instead of admitting her and letting her into the country, it is usually because they have concerns regarding the “admissibility” of that LPR. Concerns regarding admissibility are usually triggered by some criminal violation of the LPR—no matter how far in the past!

Any time an LPR comes in and out of the country, that LPR is asking for “admission” and needs to be admissible under section 212 of the Immigration and Nationality Act. If you committed a crime that could render you inadmissible to the country, and CBP happens to notice about that crime (yes they have not notice, they might have not noticed the past 10 times you traveled abroad) then they could deny admission.

Generally CBP faced with this situations, will do one of two things: (1) if they are unsure as to whether or not your criminal incident renders your inadmissible, they will tell you come back and give you an I-546 form which is an Order to Appear again at a CBP office with copies of your conviction records. (2) If they think more conclusively that you are inadmissible (or deportable), then CBP will give you a document called Notice to Appear (Form I-862). That document will order you to go in front of an immigration judge for him/her to decide whether you should be admitted or deported from the United States. At this point you are in what is called technically “Removal Proceedings”. The government is trying to remove you.

If you are facing either one of these scenarios, it is extremely important that you contact an immigration attorney for an evaluation of your criminal records. An immigration attorney can also tell you what are your options assuming your record does render you removable from the US. You might qualify from relief from removal depending on your circumstances. If you are not in this situation yet, but have criminal record (no matter how far in the past) and plan to travel abroad, it is also important that you call an attorney so he can assess whether or not you will potentially have troubles coming back to the US. Criminal convictions for LPR’s are a time bomb that could potentially get you in a lot of trouble coming back to the US.

For questions about this call our firm at 305-699-7848 for a free telephonic evaluation of our case.